Technological development and globalization have changed the workload of workers and through changes of the “basic work content.” There are less and fewer burnouts from heavy physical work or unflavored working conditions – BUT – it has been replaced with new burnouts, mainly psychological. The result of this burnouts are more and more stress and stress-related illnesses
Literature defines stress as congestion that threatens the individuals physical and mental integrity. Stress is an intricate pattern of emotional states, psychological responses, and thoughts that arise in response to external demands or environment-related stressors.
The stressors can be:
- Physical, e.g., Unbearable heat;
- Biological, e.g., Hunger, thirst, illness;
- Psychologically, e.g., The expectation of something wrong;
- Social, e.g., Unemployment
Stress and Burnout Syndrome
The term for burnout first appeared in 1974. It was introduced by psychologist Freudenberg, who investigated mental problems with the Social worker’s staff.
Despite the similarity between the phenomena, there are also significant differences.
Stress affects an individual in various life situations, and the occurrence of burnout is linked only to his or her work. Stress is a concept that refers to a short adaptation process accompanied by mental and physical symptoms – while burnout is the FINAL stage when all the adaptation processes fail.
The term burnout is usually referred to a specific syndrome due to prolonged exposure to work stress and occurs primarily in occupations that extensively work with people in emotionally challenging situations where an individual is forced to help problems of others while keeping their emotions down.
What we must be aware, that this is not a fake disease or even a condition, but a real syndrome that has the International Classification of a Disease Z-730 (MKB-10), and has a severe, long-lasting and often irreversible consequences.
Causes for Burnout Syndrome
Burnout occurs because of many unsuccessful managing of stress and depletion of individual energy sources. It occurs when there are significant disparities between the nature of the work and the nature of the person performing this work.
Ahead are the leading causes of getting workplace burnouts:
- Feeling overwhelmed (work is more intense, requires more time, is more complicated)
- The lack of control over the work it is doing
- Inadequate reward
- Dissolution of the working community
- Absence of honesty
- Conflicting values
Definition of Burnout Syndrome
Burnout is a unique type of stress syndrome characterized by three characteristics
Emotional exhaustion: feeling like you lack energy and feeling that your emotional reserves are worn out
Depersonalization: negativity, cynicism, excessive “distant” responses to other people at work (Individual treats clients as objects, is distant, and has a general negative attitude towards people.
Reduced personal achievement: individual negatively assesses himself, emphasizes the decline in his competence and productivity, feels less effective, and he is supposed to be.
Unlike stressful, from which an individual eventually recovers – psychological exhausting is a permanent and irreversible condition. Burnout is often associated with “not being in the mood” it is not a state of depression.
Symptoms and signs of burnout
So far, 130 signs of being burnout have been discovered – ranging from anxiety to changed working drive.
The initial level of burnout is physical fatigue and emotional exhaustion, which are usually the results of an unsuccessful attempt at actively coping with the heavy demands of one’s work life. At this stage, a person can experience symptoms such as anxiety, tension, overactivity (outbreaks of anger, agitation, irritability, etc.).
If the problems continue, we start seeing various changes in behavior, attitude, and opinion (e.g., dissatisfaction with work, loss of interest in people, negative feelings about themselves, increased consumption of drugs alcohol )
We can group these signs into five groups that are defined by the following changes:
- Emotional disorders: intolerance, irritability, emotional void
- Cognitive problems: dispersal, inability to maintain and deepen attention, problems with memory
- Physical disorders: sleep disorders, headaches, fatigue
- Behavioral changes: inflexibility, cynicism to others, rejecting changes or avoid challenges
- Differences in motivation: loss of working eagerness, cheerfulness, lack of interest
Preventive action includes awareness and education. Individual organizations should organize assistance programs.
The prevention aims to know and recognize the syndrome – If we know the early signs of burnouts, we can use appropriate action to stop it.
Treatment of Burnout Syndrome
First, we need to remove the person from the situation that caused or lead to the exhaustion. At the start he needs peace and rests to calm the body and a healthy diet – this can last from a few weeks to several months until the individual starts feeling the “will to live” again.
It is important to note that when people go on vacation (since the psychological and behavioral stress is eliminated for the time being), it reduces the amount of burnout. The effect is not long-lasting. Burnout at the end of vacation is reduced but only for a brief period.
If you are starting to feel burned out, you need so-called holistic treatment – which should include both reliefs of the symptoms and eliminating any factors that caused this to you.
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- Dollard F., Maureen, Winefield H., Anthony in Winefield R., Helen (2003). Occupatioal Stress in the Service Professions. Taylor & Francis